Switram is very progressive and chronic skin condition. According to Ayurveda, skin is the most essential sens organ, where vital bio energies like DOSHAS, specifically Vata (Air) and the fire aspect of the body ( Bhrajaka Pitta)reside in the skin (Twak). Ayurvedic words such as are Switra and kilas are synonymous for the similar condition which is also called as Vitiligo in Biomedicine.
The symptoms may vary from simple white patches to red, rose or white colours patches either in one location or even spread all over the body. According to Susrutha it is “ Nirdhista”, it is stable and remains at the skin level, which is even supported later by Madhava and Vaghbhata, whereas, Charka clearly mentioned that when bio energies like vitiated Doshas accumulate in various levels of the body tissues (Dhatus mainly muscle and fat) then it establishes firmly and the prognosis becomes difficult to treat. The curable type has not red hair, pale and elevated towards the centre and of the recent in onset. The type with red hair, long duration (Chronic) and extensive in nature is incurable.
Most common causes according to Ayurveda are, eating incompatible food, ingestion of unwholesome food, sinful activities, unethical conduct and effects of past deeds. According to the conventional approach it is of unknown in origin or of autoimmune in origin.